The German audience may look into the document:


I want to offer some basics about meteorology, flight technology and nephology (knowledge about clouds).

Atmospheric Layers

The layers of Atmosphere, when measured within the Temperate Climate Zone, consist of following estimated heights. 

Troposphere       —      0 km  – 11 km
Tropopause         —     12 km – 20 km
Stratosphere       —     21 km – 49 km
Stratopause         —     55km – 55km
Mesosphere         —     56 km – 79 km
Mesopause           —     80 km – 85 km
Thermosphere     —     86 km – 489 km
Thermopause      —     490 km – 510 km
Exosphere            —     511 km – infinity

Concerning the ions the area of Mesosphere and Exosphere is also called Ionosphere.

All heights are for the Temperate Climate Zone!

Energized by sunlight and Earth’s internal energy the near surface air is heated up, expands, rises upwards and cools without external interference. This movement is called „adiabatic cooling“, the air cools by its own expansion.

Heated air can contain up to 4% humidity, which is equal to  100% relative humidity rate. The ability of air to carry humidity declines with lowering temperature. Cooling air begins to condensate the humidity at crossing 97% relative humidity rate and builds clouds and turns them to precipitation.

As visible above, 99% of Atmosphere consists of Nitrogen and Oxygen. Where is this assumed devil CO2? The heinous „monster“ is hiding within the remaining 1%, but by reducing the 0.934% of Argon all trace gases get a share of only 0.066%.

So where is this dangerous Carbon Dioxide? Only 0.037% of Atmosphere is made of CO2. This is all CO2 blown out by animals, bacteria, sheep, cows, humans, insects, all fish, seals, whales in the oceans, the volcanic eruptions under the oceans and on land.

More about CO2 is to be found under FAQ about CO2 or within the PDF presentation „CO2_Molecule_of_Life“ in the Download area.


The main conductor of terrestrial weather are the electromagnetic waves, which we call light, delivered by our Sun. In addition comes the Earth rotation and the surface structure!

When they reach and heat up the surface, heat waves rise to the sky and carry humidity (vapor). At a height of ca. 2 km and a temperature of 0°C the vapor begins to condensate. The result of this process is named as Cumulus Cloud (Thermal Cloud), but it is only the peak of a much bigger structure. Such a cloud has a flat and concave bottom side and pyramidal upcoming upper side .

A rising plane will begin to produce a condensation trail (contrail) not before ca. 9 km and a temperature of nearly -40°C. The contrail is clearly visible at a height of ca. 10 km and a average temperature of -56°C.

This contrail is the visible shock condensation of the 2.8% vapor, contained in the exhaust emission of the turbofan turbines which is mixed with the bypass air to an average temperature of ca. 150°C to 200°C, which gets in contact with the outside air with a temperature of ca. -56°C.
The exhaust emission consists of 90% clean bypassed air7% CO22.8% vapor of water and 0,2 other gases and immeasurable low portion of soot.
Because of missing soot or other source of condensation nuclei, it is not possible for the vapor droplets to desublimate on hard particles to stable ice crystals. The contrail disappears within seconds by losing its heat and diffusion of humidity.

Persistent Trails

Why is it different for some airplanes?

How and from where come the condensation nuclei into the flight path of these airplanes?

Why do such airplanes produce long and stable ice clouds (cirrus clouds)?

Why have these ice clouds a grid structure over the whole ceiling, criss-cross to the normal flight routes?

Why are such persistent trails also called chemical trails or just Chemtrails!

This aircraft is near by 9km heigt and produces no visible contrail.

Cloud Studies